The first section Lilavati (also known as patiganita or ankaganita ) consists of 277 verses. It covers calculations, progressions, menstruation permutations, and other topics.
The second section Bījagaṇita has 213 verses. It discusses zero, infinity, positive and negative numbers, and indeterminate equations including (the now called) Pell’s equation, solving it using a kuṭṭaka method. In particular, he also solved the case that was to elude Fermat and his European contemporaries centuries later.
In the third section Grahagaṇita, while treating the motion of planets, he considered their instantaneous speeds. He arrived at the approximation:
for close to , or in modern notation:
In his words:
Bimbardhasya kotihya gunastrijyaharah phalam dorjyayorantram
This result had also been observed earlier by Munjalacarya (or Manjulacarya) in 932, in his astronomical work “Laghu –manasam” ,in the context of a table of sines.
Bhaskara also stated that at its highest point a planet’s instantaneous speed is zero.
to be continue…….