**Bhaskara II Astronomy**

Using an astronomical model developed by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, Bhaskara accurately defined many astronomical quantities, including, for example, the length of the sidereal year, the time that is required for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as 365.2588 days which is the same as in Suryasiddhanta. The modern accepted measurement is 365.2563 days, a difference of just 3.5 minutes.

His mathematical astronomy text *Siddhanta Shiromani* is written in two parts: the first part on mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere.

The twelve chapters of the first part cover topics such as:

- Mean longitudes of the planets.
- True longitudes of the planets.
- The three problems of diurnal rotation.
- Suzgies .
- Lunar eclipses.
- Solar Eclipses.
- Latitudes of the planets.
- Sunrise equation
- The Moon’s crescent.
- Conjunctions of the planets with each other. The second part contains thirteen chapters on the sphere. It c
- Conjunctions of the planets with the fixed stars.
- The paths of the Sun and Moon.
- overs topics such as:

- Praise of study of the sphere.
- Nature of the sphere.
- Cosmography and geography.
- Planetary and geography.
- Planetary mean motion.
- Eccentric epicyclical mode of the planets.
- The armillary sphere.
- Spherical Trigonometry .
- Ellipse calculations.
- First visibilities of the planets.
- Calculating the lunar crescent.
- Astronomical instruments.
- The Seasons.
- Problems of astronomical calculations.

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