Why we are Celebrating HOLI.

In spite of being such a colorful and gay festival, there are various aspects of Holi which makes it so significant for our lives. Though they might not be so apparent but a closer look and a little thought will reveal the significance of Holi in more ways than meets the eyes. Ranging from social-cultural, religious to biological there is every reason why we must heartily enjoy the festival and cherish the reasons for its celebrations.

So when, its time for Holi, please don’t hold yourself back and enjoy the festival to the hilt by participating with full enthusiasm in every small tradition related to the festival.

Way back in the pre-Christian era, there lived a demon king named Hiranyakashipu in ancient India. He wanted to avenge the death of his younger brother. The brother, also a demon, had been killed by Lord Vishnu, one of the supreme trio, monitoring the life and death in the universe, (according to the Hindu belief). To take on Vishnu, the tyrant king wanted to become the king of the heaven, earth and the underworld. He performed severe penance and prayer for many years to gain enough power. Finally he was granted a boon. Powered by the boon, Hiranyakshipu thought he had become invincible. Arrogant, he ordered all in his kingdom to worship him, instead of God. The demon king, however, had a very young son, named Prahalad. He was an ardent devotee of Vishnu. Despite his father’s order, Prahalad continued to pray to Vishnu. So the demon king wanted to kill his son. He asked the favor of his sister Holika who, because of a boon, was immune to fire. They planned that Prahalad would be burned to death. A pyre was lit up and Holika sat on it, clutching Prahalad. Yet, at the end Prahalad emerged unscathed by the fire, And Holika, the demon, was burned to ashes. The earnest devotion and complete submission to Lord Vishnu savedyoung Prahlad. Thus was the triumph of Prahlad, the representative of good spirits. And the defeat of Holika, the representative of evil. Later, even the demon king Hiranyakashipu was killed by Lord Vishnu. But that is quite a different story. It is from Holika, that the Holi originated. This legend is relived even today on the Holi-eve when the pyre is re-lit in the form of bonfires. Even today, people celebrate this occasion. Huge bonfires are lit up every year on the eve of the full moon night of the Holi to burn the spirit of the evils. Hence the story associated with the soul of the celebration.

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लाठी नहीं बंदूकों से डरकर भागे हैं भारत से अंग्रेज! आजाद हिन्द फ़ौज ने कराया था भारत को आजाद

Azad Hind Fauz

अंग्रेज एक बात अच्छी तरह से जानते थे कि महात्मा गाँधी आजादी के लिए कोई भी हिंसक कदम नहीं उठाने वाले हैं.वहीं गाँधी जी को तो अंग्रेजों से कोई समस्या भी नहीं हो रही थी. 1947 से पहले गांधी जी ने जो आन्दोलन किये थे, उनका कोई बड़ा असर अंग्रेजों पर हुआ भी नहीं था.

किन्तु फिर अचानक से ही गांधी जी आजादी के हीरो बन जाते हैं और अंग्रेज जाते-जाते शर्त रखते हैं कि एक तो विभाजन होगा और दूसरा कि सुभाष चंद्र बोस मिलते हैं तो उनको इंग्लैंड को सौपना होगा.

तब आखिर ऐसा क्या था कि सुभाषचंद्र बोस से अंग्रेज इतना जल रहे थे और अपना गुस्सा सरेआम जाहिर भी कर रहे थे.

असल में अंग्रेजों की नाक में सबसे ज्यादा दम भरने वाले व्यक्ति का यही नाम है. हकीकत यह है कि अगर सुभाषचंद्र बोस नहीं होते तो देश को आजादी नहीं मिल सकती थी.

सन 1933 से 1936 तक नेताजी यूरोप में रहे थे. तब अगर आप इतिहास पढ़ते हैं तो पायेंगे कि यूरोप में यह दौर हिटलर के नाजीवाद और मुसोलिनी के फासीवाद का चल रहा था. नाजीवाद और फासीवाद का निशाना इंग्लैंड था. जिसने पहले विश्वयुद्ध के बाद जर्मनी पर एक तरफा समझौते थोपे थे. वे उसका बदला इंग्लैंड से लेना चाहते थे. अब देखिये कि नेताजी मदद लेने दुश्मन के दुश्मन के पास गये थे. क्योकि दुश्मन का दुश्मन, हमारा दोस्त होता है. नेता जी मानते थे कि स्वतंत्रता हासिल करने के लिए भारत को सेना की आवश्यकता जरुर पड़ेगी.

सन 1943 में सुभाष जी जर्मनी से जापान पहुंचे थे.

अभी जर्मनी ने भारत की मदद के लिए हाँ कर दी थी. इस बात से अंग्रेजों की हवा खराब हो चुकी थी. जापान से नेताजी सिंगापुर पहुँचते हैं यहाँ पर जो होता है वह तो अंग्रेजों की जड़े ही हिला देता है. नेताजी जी आज़ाद हिंद फ़ौज की कमान अपने हाथों में ले लेते हैं. अब देश के अन्दर संघर्ष शुरू हो चुका था.

अंग्रेज समझने लगे थे कि एक तरफ हमको विश्वयुद्ध लड़ना है और दूसरी तरफ भारत से भी लड़ना पड़ेगा.

देश के अंदर महिलाओं के लिए रानी झांसी रेजिमेंट का भी गठन किया गया था. इसकी कप्तान लक्ष्मी सहगल बनी थीं. अपने आगामी लेख में हम रानी झांसी रेजिमेंट का उल्लेख करेंगे.

सन 1947 में ही भारत को क्यों आजाद किया था?

जब यह सवाल एक अंग्रेज अधिकारी से किया गया था तो क्लेमेंट ने जवाब दिया था कि जब भारत की सेना ने विद्रोह कर दिया था तो हमें भारत छोड़ना पड़ा था. तो यह भारतीय सेना कौन-सी थी? यह आजाद हिन्द फ़ौज ही थी. आजाद हिन्द फ़ौज के सैनिकों को गिरफ्तार किया जा रहा था लेकिन सभी अंग्रेज समझ गये थे कि लबे वक़्त तक आजाद हिन्द फ़ौज के सामने टिकना और स्थिति को संभालना मुश्किल है.

तो ऐसा नहीं है कि गांधी जी उस समय शांत बैठे थे लेकिन वह समझ गये थे कि अब देश को आजादी मिलने वाली है और नेताजी जो कर रहे हैं सही कर रहे हैं. इसलिए गांधी जी ने नेताजी का मार्ग रोकने की कोशिश नहीं की थी.

वैसे इस थ्योरी पर आपको काफी शक होंगे तो ऐसे में आप सबसे पहले तो अनुज धर की सुभाषचंद्र बोस के ऊपर लिखी सभी पुस्तकें पढ़ लीजिये. तब उसके बाद क्लेमेंट के लेख पढ़ लीजिये. अनुज धर ने सुभाषचंद्र बोस के ऊपर लिखी पुस्तक “व्हाट हैपेंड टू नेताजी ?”  में हिन्द फ़ौज का सफरनामा लिखा है.

इस तरह से अचानक से ही सन 47 में भारत को आजादी दे दी जाती है लेकिन हम आजाद हिन्द फ़ौज के असली नायकों को आज तक उनका सही अधिकार भी नहीं दे पाए हैं. देश का यह दुर्भाग्य नहीं तो और क्या है?

Baji Rao Peshwa fought 41 wars, one of which he was not defeated

 

Many great kings and warriors in the history of India and sparked earned recognition of his bravery. Mratho Yoddhao were such a great ruler Peshwa Baji, who first defeated the Mughals had captured Delhi and established a huge Hindu empire. Let’s go have a warrior in history concerning anonymous hai
By setting the Mughal Empire in India Hindurajy demolish the Peshwa Baji Rao (bajirao peshwa) full name of the rich Baji Bllala (Balaaji) was dens. After the death of Shivaji Maharaj in Mratho Citpavn Peshwao increased influence of Brahmin descent and he assumed power. Baji Rao Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath here like that of an able ruler born August 18, 1700 AD., Was the eldest son of his father.Hindurajy established in India.

Bajirao I was a general of the Maratha Empire in India. He served as Peshwa to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu from 1720 until Bajirao’s death. He is also known by the names Bajirao Ballal and Thorale Bajirao

Baji Rao Peshwa fought 41 wars, one of which he was not defeated. Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah was in awe of him, so he gave him, refusing to direct offering. The main campaign of the war in which he Baji Bhopal Nawab of Deccan ul Mulk again and beat him to pay Rs 50 lakh as compensation saying the war.
Baji was another major campaign to defeat The Portuguese right after The Portuguese finished and the Konkan region of Rs 7,000 to the annual compensation as Mrathao accepted.

Peshwa Baji Rao’s first victory over the Deccan where he defeated in 1722 by the Nawab of Deccan Nizam-ul-Mulk got free from foreign yoke. But Nizam-ul-Mulk took its revenge Mratho Mughals assistance in the areas of violence began. In March 1728 the Nizam Palked suffered defeat for the second time, and he accepts the fourth Mratho o. Then Baji Rao Peshwa won Malwa and Bundelkhand Muhammad Khan Bangash beat.

Baji Rao Peshwa in 1730 after winning Gujarat have traveled to Delhi. Baji Rao Peshwa persons skilled in war strategy, with a huge army stormed Delhi. A detachment of the army split into two Baji Tukdio further sent to Delhi. After stepping back in Delhi Mlharrav Holkar returned back to the Mughals, Marathas have been felt. Baji suddenly stormed Mughals celebrated on the Mughal army was panicked. Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah went into hiding for fear of the Red Fort. Mratho Delhi on March 31, 1737 and taken over by the Mughals were giving only limited to the Red Fort. Baji’s confident character warlords ruler gave to handle and returned back to Pune.

Delhi’s Birla temple Peshwa Baji column Romance felt it describes who not only defeated all foreign invaders, but by setting the country monopoly Hindurajy overcome the tyranny of their citizens and to build a strong India, which remained in the country until 1830.

Baji Pathans, Mughals defeated all foreign Turks ruled the country monopoly and established a Hindu Kingdom. Baji Nizam-ul-Mulk, Khan A Durran, Muhammad Khan beat the great emperors. Many great historian has compared him to Napoleon.

Baji Mathura, Banaras Hindu sacred to the entire region free of foreign Muslim Mughals got business. Baji its good relations with the Rajputs maintained and did not encroach into the kingdom. The Portuguese team to beat in the West was his greatest accomplishment The Portuguese from Vasai fort, after which he was stripped and the victims of the atrocities of the public lands The Portuguese business funding.

To say the sign of love Taj Mahal in India is said to have an even bigger love story of Baji Rao Peshwa and Mastani. The unique beauty of their time in Afghanistan, which was originally Mastani, and a dancer. Shujaat Khan in 1724 when he defeated the Maratha chieftain Cimaji Appa Mastani them he had brought the Peshwa Baji Rao. Subsequently the two love each other and both have increased.

A special place in the heart of Baji Rao Mastani made. Hindu women in her life, customs and traditions of the uncool, so they adopted the name became well-known as Baji Rao Mastani. April 28, 1740 due to illness, died ,khargoan in the Peshwa Baji Rao Mastani shock.

कहां से आया ‘भारत माता की जय’ का नारा, ये है इनकी पहली फोटो

पहली बार 1873 में आया था नाटक

बंगाल के लेखक किरणचंद्र बंदोपाध्याय के नाटक ‘भारत माता’ के साथ सबसे पहले यह दो शब्द सामने आए। नाटक सन् 1873 में खेला गया था। यह बंगाल में अकाल की कहानी थी। घर छोड़कर जा रही महिला और उसके पति को एक पुजारी भारत माता के मंदिर ले जाता है। पति-पत्नी अंग्रेजों को हराने की लड़ाई में क्रांतिकारियों के साथ हो जाते हैं। इसके बाद 1882 में बंकिमचंद्र चटोपाध्याय का उपन्यास ‘आनंदमठ’ आया । इसमें ‘वंदे मातरम’ कविता था।
अवनीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर ने बनाई थी पहली फोटो
इसके बाद वर्ष 1905 में अवनीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर ने भारत माता का एक चित्र बनाया। इसे भारत माता की पहली तस्वीर माना जाता है। चित्र में भारत का नक्शा नहीं था। भारत माता भगवा रंग के बंगाल के परंपरागत परिधान में दिखाई गईं। शुरू में इसे बंग माता भी कहा गया। चार हाथों वाली देवी के हाथों में किताब, धान की पुली, माला और सफेद वस्त्र था।
डिस्कवरी ऑफ इंडिया’ में जवाहरलाल नेहरू ने लिखा था- जब मैं सभाओं में जाता हूूं तो ‘भारत माता की जय’ के नारे लगते हैं। मैं लोगों से पूछता हूं यह भारत माता कौन है। फिर बताता हूं कि यह भूमि तो भारत माता है ही, लेकिन सच्चे अर्थों में यहां के लोग भारत माता हैं। इसकी जय का मतलब इस भूमि के लाखों लोगों की जीत का संकल्प है।
1936 में बनारस में भारत माता मंदिर का लोकार्पण महात्मा गांधी ने किया था। यह मंदिर स्वतंत्रता सेनानी शिवप्रसाद गुप्त ने बनवाया था। इसमें न प्रतिमा है और न किसी देवी-देवता का चित्र। इसमें भारत का नक्शा है। तब गांधीजी ने कहा था, उम्मीद है कि मंदिर सभी धर्मों, जातियों और सम्प्रदायों का साझा केंद्र बनेगा। यह देश में धार्मिक एकता, शांति और प्रेम को बढ़ावा देने का माध्यम बनेगा। इसके अलावा भी देश में कई जगह भारत माता के मंदिर हैं।

April 13, 1919 in the Jallianwala Bag Massacre

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Jallianwala Bagh is a public garden in Amritsar near Golden Temple in the Panjab state of India , and houses a memorial of national importance, established in 1951 by the Government of India, to commemorate the massacre of peaceful celebrators including unarmed women and children by British occupying forces, on the occasion of the Punjabi New Year on April 13, 1919 in the Jallianwala Bag Massacre . Colonial rule of  British Government  sources identified 379 fatalities and estimated about 1100 wounded. Civil Surgeon Dr. Smith indicated that there were 1,526 casualties . The true figures of fatalities are unknown, but are likely to be many times higher than the official figure of 379.

The 6.5-acre (26,000 m2) garden site of the massacre is located in the vicinity of Golden Temple  complex, the holiest shrine of Sikhism.

The memorial is managed by the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust, which was established as per the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act passed by the Government of India in 1951.

On 11 April, Brigadier General R.E.H. O’ Dyer  arrived from Jalandhar Cantonment, and virtually occupied the town as civil administration under Miles Irving, the Deputy Commissioner, had come to standstill. On Sunday, 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced of a major insurrection and he banned all meetings; however, this notice was not widely disseminated. That was the day of Baisakhi, the main Sikh festival, and many villagers had gathered in the Bagh. On hearing that a meeting had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, Dyer went with fifty Gurkha riflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to shoot at the crowd. Dyer continued the firing for about ten minutes, until the ammunition supply was almost exhausted; Dyer stated that 1,650 rounds had been fired, a number which seems to have been derived by counting empty cartridge cases picked up by the troops. Official British Indian sources gave a figure of 379 identified dead, with approximately 1,100 wounded. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 dead.

During World War I (1914–18) the British government of India enacted a series of repressive emergency powers that were intended to combat subversive activities. By the war’s end, expectations were high among the Indian populace that those measures would be eased and that India would be given more political autonomy. The Mantagu Chelmsford Report,  presented to the British Parliament  in 1918, did in fact recommend limited local self-government. Instead, however, the government of India passed what became known as the Rowlatt Acts in early 1919, which essentially extended the repressive wartime measures.

The acts were met by widespread anger and discontent among Indians, notably in the Punjab region. Gandhi in early April called for a one-day general strike throughout the country. In Amritsar  the news that prominent Indian leaders had been arrested and banished from that city sparked violent protests on April 10, in which soldiers fired upon civilians, buildings were looted and burned, and angry mobs killed several foreign nationals and severely beat a Christian missionary. A force of several dozen troops commanded by Brigadier General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer was given the task of restoring order. Among the measures taken was a ban on public gatherings

On the afternoon of April 13, a crowd of at least 10,000 men, women, and children gathered in an open space known as the Jallianwalla Bagh, which was nearly completely enclosed by walls and had only one exit. It is not clear how many people there were protesters who were defying the ban on public meetings and how many had come to the city from the surrounding region to celebrate Baisakhi, a spring festival. Dyer and his soldiers arrived and sealed off the exit. Without warning, the troops opened fire on the crowd, reportedly shooting hundreds of rounds until they ran out of ammunition. It is not certain how many died in the bloodbath, but, according to one official report, an estimated 379 people were killed, and about 1,200 more were wounded. After they ceased firing, the troops immediately withdrew from the place, leaving behind the dead and wounded.

The government of India ordered an investigation of the incident (the Hunter Commission), which in 1920 censured Dyer for his actions and ordered him to resign from the military. Reaction in Britain to the massacre was mixed, however. Many condemned Dyer’s actions—including Winston Churchill , then secretary of war, in a speech to the House of Commons  in 1920—but the  House of Lords  praised Dyer and gave him a sword inscribed with the motto “Saviour of the Punjab.” In addition, a large fund was raised by Dyer’s sympathizers and presented to him. The Jallianwalla Bagh site in Amritsar is now a national monument.

Happy New Year of Gudi Padwa

Gudhi_Padwa_Gudhi

Gudi Padwa, the first Holy festival which marks the beginning of the New Year, new month and new day for the Hindus falls on Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. (8th April 2016) It is known as Gudhi Padwa (in Maharashtra), Ugadi (in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh). [In other parts of country it is celebrated during Nau Roz (Kashmir), Baisakhi (Punjab), Cheti Chand (Sindhi), Naba Barsha (Bengal), Goru Bihu (Assam), Puthandu (Tamil Nadu), Vishu (Kerala)] On this very day Lord Brahma created the Universe. Therefore for Hindus, this day carries special importance. The day is celebrated with an auspicious bath, followed by decorating the doorway with a ‘toran’, performing ritualistic worship and hoisting the Gudhi.
Gudi Padwa, the first Holy festival which marks the beginning of the New Year, new month and new day for the Hindus falls on Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. (8th April 2016) It is known as Gudhi Padwa (in Maharashtra), Ugadi (in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh). [In other parts of country it is celebrated during Nau Roz (Kashmir), Baisakhi (Punjab), Cheti Chand (Sindhi), Naba Barsha (Bengal), Goru Bihu (Assam), Puthandu (Tamil Nadu), Vishu (Kerala)] On this very day Lord Brahma created the Universe. Therefore for Hindus, this day carries special importance. The day is celebrated with an auspicious bath, followed by decorating the doorway with a ‘toran’, performing ritualistic worship and hoisting the Gudhi.
Gudhi Padwa is celebrated as Ugadi (or Yugadi) in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The day, begins with ritual showers (oil bath) followed by pooja to god and Panchanga Shravana.Houses are decorated with Mango Leaves and Rangoli and everyone in the family wear new clothes and celebrate the festival by wishing each other New year greetings.
The eating of a specific mixture called Bevu-Bella (Neem and Jaggery) in Kannada, symbolizes the fact that life is a mixture of good and bad, Happiness and Sorrow. Eating Neemand Sweet Jaggery means one need to take both Good and Bad or Happiness and Sorrow should be accepted together and with equanimity through the New Year. The special mixture consists of:
uds/Flowers for its bitterness, signifying Sadness
  • Jaggery which is sweet, signifying Happiness
In Karnataka a special dish called Obbattu or Holige (Puran Poli), is prepared on this occasion. It consists of a filling (gram and jaggery/sugar boiled and made in to a paste) stuffed in a flat roti like bread. It is usually eaten hot/cold with ghee or milk topping or coconut milk at some places of Karnataka.
Astronomical
This new moon day has special meaning from Astronomy point of view. The sun is supposed to be in first point of Aries, (Hamal) which is first sign of Zodaic and is a natural beginning of spring. Many civilzations have known this.
People of ancient Egypt knew this and Nowruz (literally “New Day” ) in Persia is also based on this observation.
The Sun however may not be exactly in Aries due to Lunear Month . This is adjusted by adding a “Adhika” (Literally an extra) Lunar month every three years to ensure New Year Day( “Gudhee Padwa”) indeed matches observed season.
It has evolved into of many festivals Holi, Gudi Padwa around this part of year in India It is one of the most famous harvesting festival in India.
Indian family are celebrated New Year of theis day , Day Gudi are celebrated to New Day and New year Start in Hindu’s , Hindu are celebrated New Vikram Sambat.
Festivities
On the festive day, courtyards in village houses will be swept clean and plastered with fresh cow-dung. Even in the city, people take the time out to do some spring cleaning. Women and children work on intricate rangoli designs on their doorsteps, the vibrant colours mirroring the burst of colour associated with spring. Everyone dresses up in new clothes and it is a time for family gatherings.
Traditionally, families are supposed to begin the festivities by eating the bittersweet leaves of the neem tree. Sometimes, a paste of neem leaves is prepared and mixed with dhane, gul/gur (known as jaggery in English), and tamarind . All the members of the family consume this paste, which is believed to purify the blood and strengthen the body’s immune system against diseases.

Grate King of Ashok

Policy
Buddhist Emperor Asoka built thousands of Stupas and Viharas for Buddhist followers. One of his stupas, the Great Sanchi Stupa, has been declared as a World Heritage Site by UNECSO. The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath has a four-lion capital, which was later adopted as the national emblem of the modern Indian republic. Throughout his life, ‘Asoka the Great’ followed the policy of nonviolence or ahimsa. Even the slaughter or mutilation of animals was abolished in his kingdom. He promoted the concept of vegetarianism. The caste system ceased to exist in his eyes and he treated all his subjects as equals. At the same time, each and every person was given the rights to freedom, tolerance, and equality.

Missions to Spread Buddhism
The third council of Buddhism was held under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka. He also supported the Vibhajjavada sub-school of the Sthaviravada sect, now known as the Pali Theravada. He sent his missionaries to the following places:

  • Kashmir – Gandhara Majjhantika
  • Mahisamandala (Mysore) – Mahadeva
  • Vanavasi (Tamil Nadu) – Rakkhita
  • Aparantaka (Gujarat and Sindh) – Yona Dhammarakkhita
  • Maharattha (Maharashtra) – Mahadhammarakkhita
  • “Country of the Yona” (Bactria/ Seleucid Empire) – Maharakkhita
  • Himavanta (Nepal) – Majjhima
  • Suvannabhumi (Thailand/ Myanmar) – Sona and Uttara
  • Lankadipa (Sri Lanka) – Mahamahinda
His missionaries also went to the below mentioned places:
  • Seleucid Empire (Middle Asia)
  • Egypt
  • Macedonia
  • Cyrene (Libya)
  • Epirus (Greece and Albania)