Sexual desire is a motiivational state and an interest in “sexual objects or activities, or as a wish, need, or drive to seek out sexual objects or to engage in sexual activities. Synonyms for sexual desire are libido, exual drive, sexual motivation, sexual attraction , and lust .Sexual desire is an aspect of a person’s sexuality , which varies significantly from one person to another, and also varies depending on circumstances at a particular time.

Sexual desire may be the “single most common sexual event in the lives of men and women”.Sexual desire is a subjective feeling state that can “be triggered by both internal and external cues, and that may or may not result in overt sexual behavior”.Sexual desire can be aroused through imagination and sexual fantasies , or perceiving an individual that one finds attractive. Sexual desire is also created and amplified through sexual tension, which is caused by sexual desire that has yet to be consummated.

Sexual desire can be spontaneous or responsive. Sexual desire is dynamic, can either be positive or negative, and can vary in intensity depending on the desired object/person. The sexual desire spectrum is described by Stephen B. Levine as :aversion –> disinclination –>indifference –>interest –>need –>passion.

The production and use of sexual fantasy and thought is an important part of properly functioning sexual desire. Some physical manifestations of sexual desire in humans are; licking, sucking, puckering, and touching the lips, as well as tongue protrusion.

Grat King of Ashok

Asoka was one of the most powerful kings of the Indian subcontinent. A ruler of the Mauryan Empire, Ashoka ruled over the country from 273 BC to 232 BC. The reign of Emperor Asoka covered most of India, South Asia and beyond, stretching from present day Afghanistan and parts of Persia in the west, to Bengal and Assam in the east, and Mysore in the south. However, the Battle of Kalinga changed King Asoka completely. From a power hungry emperor, he turned into a Buddhist follower and started preaching the principles of Buddhism throughout the world. Read on this biography to know more about the life history of ‘Ashoka the Great’:

Early Life
Asoka was born in 304 BC, to Mauryan Emperor Bindusara and a relatively lower ranked queen, Dharma. The legend associated with the emperor goes that his birth had been predicted by Buddha, in the story of ‘The Gift of Dust’. Buddhist Emperor Ashoka had only one younger sibling, Vitthashoka, but, several elder half-brothers. Right from his childhood days Ashoka showed great promise in the field of weaponry skills as well as academics.

Accession to the Throne
Asoka quickly grew into an excellent warrior general and an astute statesman. His command on the Mauryan army started growing day by day and because of this, his elder brothers became suspicious of him being favored by Bindusara as the next emperor. The eldest son of Bindusara, Prince Susima, convinced him to send Asoka to Takshashila province (in Sindh) to control an uprising caused by the formation of different militias. However, the moment Ashoka reached the province, the militias welcomed him with open arms and the uprising came to an end without any fight. This particular success of Asoka made his elder brothers, especially Susima, more insecure. Continue reading “Grat King of Ashok”

Varahamihira वराहमिहिर) (505–587 CE), also called Varaha or Mihir, was an Indian astronomer, Indian astronomer, mathenatician, and astrologer and who lived in Ujjain. He was born in Avanti region, roughly corresponding to modern-day Malwa, to Adityadasa, who was himself an astronomer. According to one of his own works, he was educated at Kapitthaka. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels (Navarata (Navaratnas)) of the court of legendary ruler Yoshdharman Vikramaditya of Malwa.

Works

He was the first one to mention in his work Pancasiddhantika that the avanamsa, or the shifting of the equinox, is 50.32 seconds.

Pancha-Siddhantika

Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pancasiddhantika (or Pancha-Siddhantika, “[Treatise] on the Five [Astronomical] (Canons) dated ca. 575 CE gives us information about older Indian texts which are now lost. The work is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhantas. It is a compendium of Vedanga Jyotisha as well as Hellenistic astronomy (including Greek, Egyptian and Roman elements).[4] He was the first one to mention in his work Pancha Siddhantika that the ayanamsa, or the shifting of the equinox is 50.32 seconds.

The 11th century Iranian scholar Alberuni also described the details of “The Five Astronomical Canons”:

“They [the Indians] have 5 Siddhāntas:

  • Sūrya-Siddhānta, ie. the Siddhānta of the Sun, thought to be composed by Lāṭadeva,but actually composed by Mayasura also known as Mamuni Mayan as stated in the text itself.
  • Vasishtha-siddhānta, so called from one of the stars of the Great Bear, composed by Vishnucandra,
  • Paulisa-siddhānta, so called from Pulisa, the Greek, from the city of Saintra, which is supposed to be Alexandria, composed by Pulisa.
  • Romaka-siddhānta, so called from the Rūm, ie. the subjects of the Roman Empire, composed by Śrīsheṇ
  • Paitahama-siddhānta.

Place values system and Zero interduce to world by Aryabhata

Mathematics

Place value system and zero

The palce values system, first seen in the 3rd-century Bakhshali was clearly in place in his work. While he did not use a symbol for Zero, the French mathematician Georges Ifrah   argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata’s  Palce – Values System as a place holder for the powers of ten with Null -Coefficient

However, Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals. Continuing the Sanskritic  tradition from  Vedic Times, he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sine’s in a mnemonic form.

Place values Chart

 

 Pi ( π ) values

Aryabhata worked on the approximation for pi, and may have come to the conclusion that is irrational. In the second part of the Aryabhatiyam (Ganitapada 10), he writes:

Caturadhikam satama stagunam devasa stistatha sahasranam

Ayutadayavi siambhasyasanno vittaparinahah


“Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached.”

This implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is ((4 + 100) × 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416, which is accurate to five significant figure.

OR

Aryabhatta

chaturadhikaM shatamaShTaguNaM dvAShaShTistathA sahasrANAm AyutadvayaviShkambhasyAsanno vr^ttapariNahaH.
[gaNita pAda, 10] Aryabhatiyam (499 CE)
“Add 4 to 100, multiply by 8 and add to 62,000. This is approximately the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 20,000.”
i.e.
correct to four places.

 

It is speculated that Aryabhata used the word ‘asana’ (approaching), to mean that not only is this an approximation but that the value is incommensurable (or irrational). If this is correct, it is quite a sophisticated insight, because the irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by “Lambert”.

After Aryabhatiya was translated into Arabic  (c. 820 CE) this approximation was mentioned in Al-Khwarizmi’s  book on algebra.

he value of pi is being used in India from ancient times. It gives us an insight about how evolved our past was. There is a shloka, a hymn to Lord Krishna or Shiva, which gives the value of pi upto 31 decimal places.

Its amazing that our forefathers used an encryption technique to easily remember it. What is more astonishing is that they needed pi upto 31 places.

Importance of Pi
Pi deals with circles and circles are very important in many fields. Pi is a very important number in the fields of :

  • Geometry and trigonometry,
  • Complex number and analysis,
  • Number theory,
  • Nrobability and statistic physics,
  • Engineering and geology.
  • Computers and many more
  • Katapayadi Encryption
  • gopiibhaagya madhuvraataH shruMgashodadhi saMdhigaH .
    khalajiivitakhaataava galahaalaa rasaMdharaH
  • This shloka, a hymn to Lord Krishna or Shiva, gives the value of pi upto 31 decimal places.
Pi using Encryption
  • • Katapayadi system is used to encode numbers in many shlokas

    ga – 3 pii – 1 bhaa – 4 gya – 1 ma – 5 dhu – 9 ra – 2 ta -6 shru – 5 ga – 3 sho – 5 da – 8 dhi – 9 sa – 7 dha – 9 ga – 3 kha – 2 la – 3 jii – 8 vi – 4 ta – 6 kha – 2 ta – 6 va – 4 ga – 3 la – 3 ra – 2 sa – 7 dha – 9 ra – 2

    pi = 3.1415926535897932384626433832792

 

to be continue …….2