**Brahmagupta Arithmetic**

Four fundamental operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) were known to many cultures before Brahmagupta. This current system is based on the Hindu Arabic number system and first appeared in Brahmasphutasiddhanta. Brahmagupta describes the multiplication as thus “The multiplicand is repeated like a string for cattle, as often as there are integrant portions in the multiplier and is repeatedly multiplied by them and the products are added together. It is multiplication. Or the multiplicand is repeated as many times as there are component parts in the multiplier”. Indian arithmetic was known in Medieval Europe as “Modus Indoram” meaning method of the Indians. In Brahmasphutasiddhanta, Multiplication was named Gomutrika. In the beginning of chapter twelve of his *Brahmasphutasiddhanta*, entitled *Calculation*, Brahmagupta details operations on fractions. The reader is expected to know the basic arithmetic operations as far as taking the square root, although he explains how to find the cube and cube-root of an integer and later gives rules facilitating the computation of squares and square roots. He then gives rules for dealing with five types of combinations of fractions

**Series**

Brahmagupta then goes on to give the sum of the squares and cubes of the first *n* integers.

12.20. The sum of the squares is that [sum] multiplied by twice the [number of] step[s] increased by one [and] divided by three. The sum of the cubes is the square of that [sum] Piles of these with identical balls [can also be computed].

Here Brahmagupta found the result in terms of the *sum* of the first *n* integers, rather than in terms of *n* as is the modern practice.

He gives the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers as n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 and the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers as (n(n+1)/2)².

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## “Indian Arithmetic was known in Medieval Europe as “Modus Indoram”&rdquo पर एक विचार;