Varahamihira is the Brihat-Samhita

Brihat – Samhita

Another important contribution of Varahamihira is the Brihat-Samhita. It covers wide ranging subjects of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, architecture, growth of crops, manufacture of perfume, matrimony, domestic relations, gems, pearls, and rituals. The volume expounds on gemstone evaluation criterion found in the Garuda Purana, and elaborates on the sacred Nine Pearls from the same text. It contains 106 chapters and is known as the “great compilation”.

On Astrology

He was also an astrologer. He wrote on all the three main branches of Jyotisha astrology:

  • Brihat Jataka – is considered as one of the five main treatises on Hindu astrology on horoscopy.
  • Laghu Jataka – also known as ‘Swalpa Jataka’
  • Samasa Samhita – also known as ‘Lagu Samhita’ or ‘Swalpa Samhita’
  • Brihat Yogayatra – also known as ‘Mahayatra’ or ‘Yakshaswamedhiya yatra’
  • Yoga Yatra – also known as ‘Swalpa yatra’
  • Tikkani Yatra
  • Brihat Vivaha Patal
  • Lagu Vivaha Patal – also known as ‘Swalpa Vivaha Patal’
  • Lagna Varahi
  • Kutuhala Manjari
  • Daivajna Vallabha (apocryphal)

His son Prithuyasas also contributed in the Hindu astrology; his book Hora Sara is a famous book on horoscopy. Khana (also named Lilavati elsewhere) the medieval Bengali poetess astrologer is believed to be the daughter-in-law of Varahamihir.

Influences

The Romaka Siddhanta (“Doctrine of the Romans”) and the varahawere two works of Western origin which influenced Varahamihira’s thought, though this view is controversial as there is much evidence to suggest that it was actually Vedic thought indigenous to India which first influenced Western astrologers and subsequently came back to India reformulated. Number of his writings share similarities with with the earlier texts like Vedanga Jyotisha .

A comment in the Brihat-Samhita by Varahamihira says: “The Greeks, though Barbarians, must be honored since they have shown tremendous interest in our science…..” (“mleccha hi yavanah tesu samyak shastram kdamsthitam/ rsivat te ‘p i pujyante kim punar daivavid dvijah” (Brihat-Samhita 2.15)).

ISRO’s Reusable Launch Vehicle to take off next week

The first technology demonstrator (TD) launch of the Indian Space Research Organisation’s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), or the spaceplane in popular parlance, will take place on May 23 at 9.30 a.m. from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota, according to ISRO officials.

Visually, the RLV-TD is a rocket-aircraft combination measuring about 17 m, whose first stage is a solid propellant booster rocket and the second stage is a 6.5 m long aircraft-like winged structure sitting atop the rocket.

A misnomer

However, the popular perception of the technology as a marriage between rocket and aircraft is a misnomer.

In RLV-TD that is awaiting launch at SHAR, the first stage, weighing about 9 tonnes, is merely the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) flown in the 1980s.

The vehicle will take off like a rocket and the RLV will be taken to a height of 70 km and where the booster will release the vehicle to carry out its manoeuvres.

A conventional launch vehicle (LV), says Dr. Sivan, spends the lowest time of its flight in the atmosphere, whereas the RLV system spends all the time in the atmosphere. Also, while an LV experiences limited flight regime of say Mach 0 to Mach 2 or so, the RLV experiences a much wider range of flight regimes.

Hence the technology of an RLV is much more complex basically arising from the design of the control and guidance systems, he pointed out.

In HEX1, the winged RLV is otherwise a dummy with no powered flight of its own. At the end of the HEX1 mission, the aircraft will land in sea. However, the ultimate objective of the RLV programme of ISRO is to enable the vehicle traverse a very wide range of flight regimes from Mach 0 to Mach 25 based on air-breathing propulsion for achieving two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch capability.

The integrated test system (booster plus the RLV-TD) is already at the SDSC (SDSC), Sriharikota. Prior to being moved to Sriharikota, the RLV subsystem underwent acoustic tests at the National Aerospace Laboratories of the CSIR (CSIR-NAL) and the booster went as a separate subsystem directly from VSSC. At SDSC the two were mated together.

Dr. A.S. Kiran Kumar, ISRO Chairman, called the first test launch HEX1 “a very preliminary step” and stressed that “we have to go a long way” before it could be called a re-usable launch system. “But these are very essential steps we have to take,” he said.

Scientists at ISRO believe that they could reduce the cost of launching things into space by as much as 10 times if reusable technology succeeds, bringing it down to USD 2,000 per kg.

The making of the Indian space shuttle or RLV-TD has taken 5 years and the government has invested Rs 95 crore in the project. This flight will test the capability of the vehicle to survive a re-entry at speeds higher than that of sound so it is called a hyper sonic experiment. The 6.5-m-long ‘aeroplane’-like spacecraft will weigh 1.75 tons and will be hoisted into the atmosphere on a special rocket booster.

 

Indian Astronomer and Mathmatican Brahmagupta

BrahmaguptaMathematics

Algebra

Brahmagupta gave the solution of the a general linear Equation in chapter eighteen of Brahmasphutasiddhant,

The difference between rupas, when inverted and divided by the difference of the unknowns, is the unknown in    the equation. The rupas are [subtracted on the side] below that from which the square and the unknown are to be subtracted.

which is a solution for the equation equivalent to , where rupas refers to the constants c and e. He further gave two equivalent solutions to the general quadratic equation . Diminish by the middle [number] the square-root of the rupas multiplied by four times the square and increased by the square of the middle [number]; divide the remainder by twice the square. [The result is] the middle [number].
Whatever is the square-root of the rupas multiplied by the square [and] increased by the square of half the unknown, diminish that by half the unknown [and] divide [the remainder] by its square. [The result is] the unknown.

which are, respectively, solutions for the equation equivalent to,

x = \frac{\sqrt{4ac+b^2}-b}{2a}

and

x = \frac{\sqrt{ac+\tfrac{b^2}{4}}-\tfrac{b}{2}}{a}

He went on to solve systems of simultaneous indeterminate equations stating that the desired variable must first be isolated, and then the equation must be divided by the desired variable’s coefficient. In particular, he recommended using “the pulverizer” to solve equations with multiple unknowns.

Subtract the colors different from the first color. [The remainder] divided by the first [color’s coefficient] is the measure of the first. [Terms] two by two [are] considered [when reduced to] similar divisors, [and so on] repeatedly. If there are many [colors], the pulverizer [is to be used].

Like the algebra of Diaphanous, the algebra of Brahmagupta was syncopated. Addition was indicated by placing the numbers side by side, subtraction by placing a dot over the subtrahend, and division by placing the divisor below the dividend, similar to our notation but without the bar. Multiplication, evolution, and unknown quantities were represented by abbreviations of appropriate terms.The extent of Greek influence on this syncopation, if any, is not known and it is possible that both Greek and Indian syncopation may be derived from a common Babylonian source.

to be continue……

Varahamihira’s mathematical work included the discovery of the trigonometric formulas

varaha

Varahamihira’s Contributions of Trigonometry

Varahamihira’s mathematical work included the discovery of the trigonometric formulas

Varahamihira improved the accuracy of the sine tables of Aryabhata I.

Arithmetic

He defined the algebraic properties of zero as well as of negative numbers.

Combinatorics

He was among the first mathematicians to discover a version of what is now known as the Pascal’s triangle. He used it to calculate the binomial coefficients.

Optics

Among Varahamihira’s contribution to physics is his statement that reflection is caused by the back-scattering of particles and refraction (the change of direction of a light ray as it moves from one medium into another) by the ability of the particles to penetrate inner spaces of the material, much like fluids that move through porous objects.

^ “the Panca-siddhantika (“Five Treatises”), a compendium of Greek, Egyptian, Roman and Indian astronomy. Varahamihira’s knowledge of Western astronomy was thorough. In 5 sections, his monumental work progresses through native Indian astronomy and culminates in 2 treatises on Western astronomy, showing calculations based on Greek and Alexandrian reckoning and even giving complete Ptolemaic mathematical charts and tables.

to be continue……

Varahamihira is the Brihat-Samhita

 

 

varahaBrihat – Samhita

Another important contribution of Varahamihira is the Brihat-Samhita. It covers wide ranging subjects of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, architecture, growth of crops, manufacture of perfume, matrimony, domestic relations, gems, pearls, and rituals. The volume expounds on gemstone evaluation criterion found in the Garuda Purana, and elaborates on the sacred Nine Pearls from the same text. It contains 106 chapters and is known as the “great compilation”.

On Astrology

He was also an astrologer. He wrote on all the three main branches of Jyotisha astrology:

  • Brihat Jataka – is considered as one of the five main treatises on Hindu astrology on horoscopy.
  • Laghu Jataka – also known as ‘Swalpa Jataka’
  • Samasa Samhita – also known as ‘Lagu Samhita’ or ‘Swalpa Samhita’
  • Brihat Yogayatra – also known as ‘Mahayatra’ or ‘Yakshaswamedhiya yatra’
  • Yoga Yatra – also known as ‘Swalpa yatra’
  • Tikkani Yatra
  • Brihat Vivaha Patal
  • Lagu Vivaha Patal – also known as ‘Swalpa Vivaha Patal’
  • Lagna Varahi
  • Kutuhala Manjari
  • Daivajna Vallabha (apocryphal)

His son Prithuyasas also contributed in the Hindu astrology; his book Hora Sara is a famous book on horoscopy. Khana (also named Lilavati elsewhere) the medieval Bengali poetess astrologer is believed to be the daughter-in-law of Varahamihir.

Influences

The Romaka Siddhanta (“Doctrine of the Romans”) and the Paulisa Siddjanta (“Doctrine of Paul”) were two works of Western origin which influenced Varahamihira’s thought, though this view is controversial as there is much evidence to suggest that it was actually Vedic thought indigenous to India which first influenced Western astrologers and subsequently came back to India reformulated. Number of his writings share similarities with with the earlier texts like Vedanga Jyotisha .

A comment in the Brihat-Samhita by Varahamihira says: “The Greeks, though Barbarians, must be honored since they have shown tremendous interest in our science…..” (“mleccha hi yavanah tesu samyak shastram kdamsthitam/ rsivat te ‘p i pujyante kim punar daivavid dvijah” (Brihat-Samhita 2.15)).

 

to be continues………….

Varahamihira, was an Indian astronomer, Indian astronomer, mathenatician, and astrologer

Varahamihira an Indian astronomer

Varahamihira वराहमिहिर) (505–587 CE- India), also called Varaha or Mihir, was an Indian astronomer, mathenatician, and astrologer and who lived in Ujjain. He was born in Avanti region, roughly corresponding to modern-day Malwa, to Adityadasa, who was himself an astronomer. According to one of his own works, he was educated at Kapitthaka. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels (Navarata (Navaratnas)) of the court of legendary ruler Yoshdharman Vikramaditya of Malwa.

Works

He was the first one to mention in his work Pancasiddhantika that the avanamsa, or the shifting of the equinox, is 50.32 seconds.

Pancha-Siddhantika

Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pancasiddhantika (or Pancha-Siddhantika, “[Treatise] on the Five [Astronomical] (Canons) dated ca. 575 CE gives us information about older Indian texts which are now lost. The work is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasihtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhantas . It is a compendium of Vedanga Jyotisha as well as Hellenistic astronomy (including Greek, Egyptian and Roman elements). He was the first one to mention in his work Pancha Siddhantika that the ayanamsa, or the shifting of the equinox is 50.32 seconds.

The 11th century Iranian scholar Alberumi also described the details of “The Five Astronomical Canons”:

“They [the Indians] have 5 Siddhantas :

  • Surya Siddhanta, ie. The Siddhanta of the Sun, thought to be composed by Latadeva, ,but actually composed by Mayasura also known as Mamuni Mayan as stated in the text itself.
  • Vasishtha-Siddhantas , so called from one of the stars of the Great Bear, composed by Vishnucandra,
  • Paulisa- Siddhanta , so called from Pulisa, the Greek, from the city of Saintra, which is supposed to be Alexandria, composed by Pulisa.
  • Romaka- Siddhanta , so called from the Rūm, ie. the subjects of the Roman Empire, composed by srishen .
  • Paitahama- Siddhanta.

 

to be continue…..

 

Bhaskara II Astronomy Therory

Bhaskara II Astronomy

Using an astronomical model developed by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, Bhaskara accurately defined many astronomical quantities, including, for example, the length of the sidereal year, the time that is required for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as 365.2588 days which is the same as in Suryasiddhanta. The modern accepted measurement is 365.2563 days, a difference of just 3.5 minutes.

His mathematical astronomy text Siddhanta Shiromani is written in two parts: the first part on mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere.

The twelve chapters of the first part cover topics such as:

  • Mean longitudes of the planets.
  • True longitudes of the planets.
  • The three problems of diurnal rotation.
  • Suzgies .
  • Lunar eclipses.
  • Solar Eclipses.
  • Latitudes of the planets.
  • Sunrise equation
  • The Moon’s crescent.
  • Conjunctions of the planets with each other. The second part contains thirteen chapters on the sphere. It c
  • Conjunctions of the planets with the fixed stars.
  • The paths of the Sun and Moon.
  • overs topics such as:
  • Praise of study of the sphere.
  • Nature of the sphere.
  • Cosmography and geography.
  • Planetary and geography.
  • Planetary mean motion.
  • Eccentric epicyclical mode of the planets.
  • The armillary sphere.
  • Spherical Trigonometry .
  • Ellipse calculations.
  • First visibilities of the planets.
  • Calculating the lunar crescent.
  • Astronomical instruments.
  • The Seasons.
  • Problems of astronomical calculations.bhaskaracharya

 

visit to http://www.speak2world.wordpress.com